Chalcogen Bonding in Solution: Interactions of Benzotelluradiazoles with Anionic and Uncharged Lewis Bases

Chalcogen bonding is the noncovalent interaction between an electron-deficient, covalently bonded chalcogen (Te, Se, S) and a Lewis base. Although substantial evidence supports the existence of chalcogen bonding in the solid state, quantitative data regarding the strengths of the interactions in the solution phase are lacking. Herein, determinations of the association constants of benzotelluradiazoles with a variety of Lewis bases (Cl, Br, I, NO3 and quinuclidine, in organic solvent) are described. The participation of the benzotelluradiazoles in chalcogen bonding interactions was probed by UV–vis, 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy as well as nano-ESI mass spectrometry. Trends in the free energy of chalcogen bonds upon variation of the donor, acceptor and solvent are evident from these data, including a linear free energy relationship between chalcogen bond donor ability and calculated electrostatic potential at the tellurium center. Calculations using the dispersion-corrected B97-D3 functional were found to give good agreement with the experimental free energies of chalcogen bonding.