Azaphilone Alkaloids with Anti-inflammatory Activity from Fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum cib-411

Nine new azaphilone alkaloids, penazaphilones A–I (19), were isolated from the solid fermented rice culture of Penicillium sclerotiorum cib-411. The structures of compounds 19 were elucidated based on HRESIMS, NMR, and CD spectroscopic data. The structures of 5 and 8 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Biological evaluation showed that compounds 1, 5, 6, and 8 inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) on RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide with IC50 values of 15.29, 9.34, 9.50, and 7.05 μM, respectively. Meanwhile, they did not exhibit obvious cytotoxicity at a concentration of 50.0 μM.