Azaphilone Alkaloids with Anti-inflammatory Activity from Fungus <i>Penicillium sclerotiorum</i> cib-411

Nine new azaphilone alkaloids, penazaphilones A–I (<b>1</b>–<b>9</b>), were isolated from the solid fermented rice culture of <i>Penicillium sclerotiorum</i> cib-411. The structures of compounds <b>1</b>–<b>9</b> were elucidated based on HRESIMS, NMR, and CD spectroscopic data. The structures of <b>5</b> and <b>8</b> were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Biological evaluation showed that compounds <b>1</b>, <b>5</b>, <b>6</b>, and <b>8</b> inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) on RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 15.29, 9.34, 9.50, and 7.05 μM, respectively. Meanwhile, they did not exhibit obvious cytotoxicity at a concentration of 50.0 μM.