Antimicrobial Activity of Adenine-Based Inhibitors of NAD+-Dependent DNA Ligase

The relationship between enzyme inhibition and antimicrobial potency of adenine-based NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) inhibitors was investigated using a strain of the Gram-negative pathogen Haemophilus influenzae lacking its major AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. To this end, biochemical inhibitors not mediating their antibacterial mode of action (MOA) via LigA were removed from the analysis. In doing so, a significant number of compounds were identified that acted via inhibition of LigA in S. pneumoniae but not in H. influenzae, despite being inhibitors of both isozymes. Deviations from the line correlating antimicrobial and biochemical potencies of LigA inhibitors with the correct MOA were observed for both species. These deviations, usually corresponding to higher MIC/IC50 ratios, were attributed to varying compound permeance into the cell.