An Electrochemical Biosensor Designed by Using Zr-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks for the Detection of Glioblastoma-Derived Exosomes with Practical Application

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most fatal tumors in the brain, and its early diagnosis remains technically challenging due to the complex repertoires of oncogenic alterations and blood-brain barrier (BBB). GBM-derived specific exosomes can cross the BBB and circulate in body fluids, so they can be noninvasive biomarkers for the early diagnosis of GBM. Herein, we propose a sensitive and label-free electrochemical biosensor designed by using Zr-based metal–organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs) for the detection of GBM-derived exosomes with practical application. In the design, a peptide ligand can specifically bind with human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR variant (v) III mutation (EGFRvIII), which are overexpressed on the GBM-derived exosomes. Meanwhile, Zr-MOFs encapsulated with methylene blue can absorb on the surface of the exosomes due to the interaction between Zr4+ and the intrinsic phosphate groups outside of exosomes. Consequently, the concentration of exosomes can be directly quantified by monitoring the electroactive molecules inside MOFs, ranging from 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 107 particles/μL with the detection of limit of 7.83 × 103 particles/μL. Furthermore, this proposed biosensor can distinguish GBM patients from healthy groups, demonstrating the great prospect for early clinical diagnosis.