Altered Expression of Small Intestinal Drug Transporters and Hepatic Metabolic Enzymes in a Mouse Model of Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

Drug transporter expression and function at the blood–brain barrier is altered in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the impact of AD on the expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in peripheral tissues has received little attention. The current study evaluated the expression of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the small intestine and liver from 8- to 9-month-old female wild-type (WT) and APPswe/PSEN 1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, a widely used AD model, using a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) approach. Furthermore, the general morphological appearance of the liver was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and lipid content was visualized using Oil Red O staining. The small intestines of APP/PS1 mice exhibited a significant 2.3-fold increase in multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), a 1.9-fold decrease in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (Mct1), and a 3.6-fold increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) 2b5 relative to those from WT mice based on QTAP analysis. While the liver from APP/PS1 mice exhibited no changes in drug transporter expression, there was a 1.3-fold elevation in cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 51a1 and a 1.2-fold reduction in Cyp2c29 protein expression, and this was associated with morphological alterations including accumulation of hepatocyte lipids. These studies are the first to demonstrate that the protein expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes important in oral drug absorption are modified in a mouse model of familial AD, which may lead to altered disposition of some orally administered drugs in AD.